Considering Petroglyphs of Birjand in Arid Environments, East Central Iran

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Conservation and Restoration, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

2 department of Archaeology, Shiraz University of Arts, Shiraz, Iran

3 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

4 Archaeology, Humanities, Shahrekord University


Recent field works have shown a great potential of rock art in eastern Iran, particularly in South Khorasan province. This paper is based on recent fieldworks, which have resulted in identifying new clusters of petroglyphs at Birjand. Khazān, Aso, Kāfarkuh and Lākhduldul have been identified in this region. The major technique applied for these petroglyphs is hammering, sometimes rubbing and very rarely engraving. The images at the aforementioned sites include zoomorphs, anthropomorphs and geometric motifs, undiscernible shapes and some inscriptions engraved on boulders. Although a preliminary chronology can be established based on patination and archaeological evidence, we cannot suggest an exact dating for them. Therefore, more fieldworks and micro-erosion analysis will be required for absolute dating.


Main Subjects

🔓 © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Tissaphernes Archaeological Research Group, Tehran, Iran. Open Access. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDeriv- atives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way. The ethical policy of Persica Antiqua is based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and complies with International Committee of Persica Antiqua Editorial Board codes of conduct. Readers, authors, reviewers and editors should follow these ethical policies once working with Persica Antiqua. The ethical policy of Persica Antiqua is liable to determine which of the typical research papers or articles submitted to the journal should be published in the concerned issue. For information on this matter in publishing and ethical guidelines please visit

  • Receive Date: 30 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 12 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 07 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 18 June 2022